Types of solar panel | Concept of photovoltaic cell

Introduction to solar panel: –

Solar Energy means Sun energy which is come from Sun. Sun has a lot of energy but only a small amount of energy received by earth. And this energy used by us in different ways. Solar panel is one of them. In this article will talk about ‘What is solar panel‘ and types of solar panel.

In the filed of future energy generation a survey conducted in which it says that the solar energy demand increasing day by day. And in future we almost lost our fossils fuel which is use in currently and we ill depended totally on renewable sources of energy like solar energy.

What is Solar panel: –

A solar panel is a combination of many photovoltaic cell. In solar these cells are connected in series and parallel as the need of voltage rating. These photovoltaic cells on a plate and over the plate a glass casing is applied. This glass casing protects the cell from environmental effect like pollution, direct air and rain water etc.

A single photovoltaic cell gives a very small amount of voltage. That’s why we use a lot of photovoltaic cells in series and parallel. So that our need of voltage rating can be accomplished. A single photovoltaic cell’s voltage rating is approximately 0.26 volt.

And if we want to generate 12 volts by solar panel then we have to connect 60 cells in series. These 60 cells have the capacity to generate 15.6 volt which is enough for 12-volt generation.

Respectively if we want to increase ampere rating of the panel then we should connect more cells in parallel. And thus, current rating will be increased

Working principle of photovoltaic cell: –

Basically, photovoltaic cell made up from silicon semiconductor material. If we talking about silicon (SiO2) semiconductor material, this material is easily available on the earth. But when we talk about its extraction process. It becomes expensive. The silicon semiconductor material extracted form Sand.

When the sun light lays of the silicon made photovoltaic cell, these cells absorbed photon particle from sun light. And cell emitted free electrons. These free electrons are more energized than normal free electron which is already available in the material. These free electrons are move with super excitation.

Now the whole power generation process can be completed in 3 steps.

  1. In first step, the sun light lays in the photovoltaic cells. Photovoltaic cells absorb photon and emit super excited free-electron. Due to super excitation, they carry high potential energy.
  2. In second step, these excited free-electron collected at the terminal point by flowing.
  3. When we connect load by means of terminals, these free-electrons start flowing through load and load start working.

Types of solar panel: –

In the, market various types of solar panel available but the following types of solar panel are extensively used in these days.

  1. Polycrystalline solar panel
  2. Monocrystalline solar panel
  3. Passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) solar panel
  4. Thin-film solar panel

Polycrystalline solar panel: –

In polycrystalline solar panel different types of silicon semiconductors are used in one photovoltaic cell. Various type of silicon semiconductor melted in a single pan and molded in a squire or rectangular structure as a cell structure looks like.

Types of solar panel
Polycrystalline solar panel

This type of solar panel looks like light blackish, sometimes it looks like blue. Polycrystalline solar panel’s efficiency is lower than monocrystalline solar panel.

Monocrystalline solar panel: –

Monocrystalline solar panel made up of a single type of silicon crystal. During making wafer of a silicon crystal cell a lot of silicon is wastage. Because it has to be cut to make in uniform size.

Types of solar panel
Monocrystalline solar panel

Due to single type of silicon crystal using, it looks like dark black. This type   of solar panel has more efficiency than polycrystalline solar panel. And its validity is also longer lasting.

Passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) solar panel: –

This is also called an updated version of monocrystalline solar panel. In this solar panel, there are two types of layers used and make sandwich of photovoltaic cell. As you can see the images. In this solar panel a passivation layer is used behind the photovoltaic cell. One more layer has been used over the cell.

Because of passivation layer –

  1. The light is reflecting on the cell again and again and resultant solar radiation is increased. Thus, the power generation capacity will be increased.
  2. Often, the greater wavelength of sun light is crossed through solar cell. Because solar cell can’t absorb this greater wavelength. But when we use passivated layer this type of wavelength is also reflects to the solar panel. And resultant solar radiation is increased.


Types of solar system: –

Generally, there are two types of solar system which is install in our houses and some time in a small business house. These two types of solar system are given below.

  1. On grid solar system
  2. Off grid solar system

These two types of solar system completed by four components.

  1. Solar panel
  2. Solar inverter
  3. Solar battery
  4. Grid power

On grid solar system: –

This type of solar system completed by three component which is solar panel, solar inverter and grid power. In this solar system there is no need of solar battery. This type solar system installed where, there is no grid power instability problem. Or approximately power cut problem is negligible.

The main aim of installing this system to reduce the electricity bill of consumer.

This system is interconnected with grid power. During Sun time solar panel gives power to the houses and grid power is off. When the solar power is going to surplus after using, this surplus power delivered to grid.

In this system two energy meter are used. The first one is measuring the consumed power unit by grid connection and second one is for measuring, delivered power by solar system to grid. And thus, calibration of both energy meter electricity bill will reduced. Sometimes electricity bill becomes zero. It depends on the power consumption by consumer.

Off grid solar system: –

In this type of solar system, there is no any connection of grid power. This system is used where, grid power supply is very unstable like rural area. In this system there is no need of grid power.

Solar panel, solar inverter and solar battery are used in this system. During sun times power delivered by solar panel and we use this power. Simultaneously solar battery is also in charging mode. During night time we used the power collected by battery.

Solar energy project in India: –

Now a days whole word is considering solar energy as a very important future energy. India is also taking a very important step in this field. Indian government is establishing solar power plant in various places over all India. Private sector is also installing this solar power plant and delivering power to nearest villages and small towns.

To install Solar Power Plant we need a very large area for solar panel installation.  That’s why government select infertile land to establish this plant, like desert of Rajasthan.

India’s most important and biggest solar power plant is given below.

Bhadla solar power plant: –

This plant is located in Bhadla village, Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. The solar power project is the biggest solar power project in the world. Its power generation capacity is 2250 MW. Rajasthan using 10% solar generated power of whole power in which Bhadla Solar plant is playing a very important role.

Shakti sathla solar power plant: –

This plant is spreading hundreds of hectares. Plant’s power generation capacity is 2050 MW. This is India’s second largest solar power plant. This plant is situated in Tumakuru district in Tamilnadu.

Ultra-mega solar park: –

This plant is situated in Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh. This plant’s power generation capacity is 1000 MW. This is the third one biggest solar power plant in India. This plant has been ready within 2 years.

Rewa solar power plant: –

This plan is situated in Rewa district in Madhya Pradesh. This is the fourth largest solar power project which has power generation capacity is 750 MW. This plant captured the land of 1590 acres. This is the only one plant which is funded by Clean Technology Fund and received concessional loan from World Bank’s International Finance.

Kamuthi solar power plant: –

This plant is situated Ramnathpuram district in Tamilnadu.  This plant capacity is 648 MW.

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